Lord Buddhawas born in the year 566 B.C. in the Lumbini garden of Kapilavastu. He lost his mother within a week of his birth. Siddhartha was raised by his aunt and action mother Prajapati Gautami. Then Siddhartha was referred to as Gautama after the name of his auntie Gautami.
The text “Lalitavistara” tosses light about the education of Gautama. He became skilled in swordsmanship, horse-riding and archery and other baronial qualities.
From his childhood Gautama showed a meditative bent of mind. All sorts of chances were supplied to him to lead a life of comfort and satisfaction. He was brought up in elegant environments so that he would stay pleasant all through the day. Observing a fantastic indifference to worldliness in his child, Suddhodhana wed him at the age of sixteen, to a stunning princess Yasodhara, (laughter of the Sakya honorable Dandapani. At the age of twenty-nine, a child was born to him and he was named Rahul. But the married life did not interest him.
However, he was agitated by the essential questions of life. He was moved by the torment which people suffered in the world and looked for service. Popular customs represented how Gautama was horrified at the sight of an old man, an unhealthy individual and a dead body, and an ascetic.
These four sights made him recognize the hollowness of worldly pleasure. He was disturbed by the basic problems of life. He was drawn in by the saintly look of the ascetic and left his house, other half, and child in a sudden fit of renunciation in 573 B.C. at the age of twenty-nine, as a roaming ascetic searching for fact. Buddhist texts explain this occurrence as the “Fantastic Renunciation”.
He wandered from place to place searching for fact. He discovered Sankya viewpoint from Alarkalam at Vaisali. From Vaisali he went to Rajagriha. There he found out the art of meditation from Rudraka Ramaputra. However this meditation or yoga could not satiate his curiosity.
Then he proceeded to Uruvila near Gaya and began to practice rigorous penance for long six years. But he recognized that penance was not the correct course that would provide him perfect fact. So he chose to take food. He accepted milk used to him by a young milk-maid named Sujata. One day he took a bath in the river Niranjana and sat under a pipal tree at Bodhgaya.
After forty-nine days enlightenment dawned on him. He obtained supreme knowledge and insight. This is called the “Great Enlightenment” and since then he happened known as the “Buddha” or the “Enlightened one” or “Tathagat”. The Pipal tree under which he attained wisdom became referred to as the “Bodhi Tree”. Then the location of his meditation was popular as “Bodhagaya”.
Turning the Wheel of Law:
For seven days he remained in an euphoric mood for his knowledge. He decided to spread it for the interest of the suffering humanity. He proceeded to the Deer Park near Saranath in the vicinity of Varanasi where he delivered his very first sermen to five discovered Brahmanas. The Buddhist literatures explained it as “Turning the Wheel of Law” or “Dharma Chakra Pravartana.”
Missionary Activity of Buddha:
For the next forty-five years he undertook long journeys and preached his message far and wide. From Saranath he went to Banaras and converted a number of people to Buddhism. From Banaras he went to Rajagriha and transformed to his creed many renowned persons like King Bimbisara, prince Ajatasatru, Sariputta, and Maidglyana and so on
: He visited numerous places like Gaya, Nalanda, Pataliputra and so on. He likewise went to Kosala where Brahmanism had a strong foothold. King Prasenjit of Kosala welcomed Buddhism. One of his queen Malika and his two siblings Soma and Sakula became his disciples. There Buddha remained at Jetavana monastery which an abundant disciple Anathapindika had bought for him at a high price.
Buddha likewise checked out Kapilavastu and converted his parents, child, and loved ones to his creed. The popular courtesan of Vaisali, Amrapalli was converted to his faith. At Vaisali, Buddha provided his grant the formation of the order of nuns (Bhikshunis). He did not achieve much success in the Malla and Vatsa nation. He did not go to Avanti Desa. He did not discriminate in between the abundant and bad, high and low, man and woman.
Preaching and delivering preachings for long forty-five years he passed away at the age of eighty, at Kusinara, modern-day Kasia in the Gorakhpur district of Uttar Pradesh in a fullmoon day of Vaisakha in 487 B.C. The Buddhist texts explain this incident as “Mahaparinirvana”.
Mentors of Buddha:
The earliest readily available source of Buddha’s mentors is the Pali Suttapitaka including five Nickayar. Buddha was a reformer who kept in mind of the realities of life.
Four Noble Truths:
The path he recommended is a code of practical principles which has a rational outlook. Buddhism was more social than religious. It promoted for social equality. In his time Buddha did not include himself in the debates concerning ‘atman’ (soul) and “Brahma”. He was more concerned to worldly issues.
The 4 Noble Truths:
He preached his followers the four “Noble Truths” (Chatvari Arya Satyani) viz:
( 1) That the world is full of suffering
( 2) That there are causes of suffering like thirst, desire, accessory etc. which cause worldly presence,
( 3) That the suffering can be visited the damage of thirst, desire and so on
: (4 )That the way leads to the damage of suffering.
After describing the chain of causes that cause suffering, Buddha recommended the Eight-fold path (Arya Ashtanga Marg) as the means of deliverance from these sufferings viz.
( 1) Right speech
( 2) Right action
( 3) Right implies of livelihood
( 4) Right exertion
( 5) Right mindedness
( 6) Right meditation
( 7) Right resolution
( 8) Right view.
The very first three practices lead to Sila or physical control, the second 3 result in Samadhi or mental control, the last 2 lead to Prajna or advancement of inner sight.
The Eight-fold course is referred to as middle course. It lies in between two extremes, particularly, the life of ease and high-end and life of serious asceticism. According to Buddha, this middle path eventually leads to last bliss or ‘Nirvana’. ‘Nirvana’ actually indicates “burning out” or completion of carving or desire or trishna for existence in all its types.
It is a peaceful state to be understood by an individual who is free from all carving or desire. It is deliverance or liberty from renewal, Nirvana is an eternal state of peace or happiness which is devoid of sadness and desire (Asoka), decay (akshya), illness (abyadhi) and from birth and death (amrita).
Buddha also prescribed a standard procedure for his followers.
These are called the ’10 Principles”, including:
( 1) Do not dedicate violence
( 2) Do not steal
( 3) Do not associate with corrupt practices
( 4) Do not inform a lie
( 5) Do not utilize intoxicants
( 6) Do not use comfortable bed
( 7) Do not go to dance and music
( 8) Do not take food irregularly
( 9) Do not accept presents or yearn for other’s home,
( 10) Do not conserve money.
By following these ten concepts, one can lead a moral life.
Law of Karma:
Buddha laid terrific tension on the Law of Karma and its working and the transmigration of souls. According to him the condition of male in this life and the next relies on his own actions. Man is the maker of his own destiny not any god or gods. One can never ever get away the effects of his deeds. If a man does kind deeds in this life, he will be reborn in a greater life, and so on till he obtains nitvana. Evil deeds make certain to be punished. We are born again and again to reap the fruit of our Karmas. This is the law of Karma.
Ahimsa or Nonviolence:
One of the crucial tenants of Buddha’s mentor is Ahimsa. Non-violence towards life is more important than kind deeds. He advised that one need to not kill or hurt others either guy or animal. People were prevented from searching or killing of animals. He condemned animal sacrifice and meat-eating. Though Buddha attached excellent significance to non-violence, he permitted his fans to take meat when no other food is readily available to keep them alive.
Buddha neither accepts nor rejects the existence of God. When he was questioned about the presence of God, he either kept silence or mentioned that Gods or gods were likewise under the everlasting law of Karma. He kept himself away from any theoretical conversation about God. He was only concerned with the deliverance of guy from suffering.
Opposition to Vedas:
The Buddha opposed the authority of Vedas. He also rejected the energy of Vedic and complex Brahmanical practices and rituals for the function of salvation. He criticized the Brahmanical supremacy.
Opposition to Caste System:
The Buddha opposed Varna order or caste system. According to him a guy is to be judged not by virtue of his birth but by his qualities. In his eyes all castes are equivalent. He won the assistance of the lower orders due to the fact that of his opposition to caste system.
The Buddhist Church:
The Samgha or the Buddhist Church was equally crucial like the Buddha and his teachings. The subscription of the Buddhist Church was open to all persons irrespective of any class or caste distinctions, above fifteen years of age, offered they did not struggle with leprosy and other illness. Ladies were likewise admitted.A person to the Sangha seeking ordination as a monk had to choose a preceptor and obtain the permission of the assembly of monks. The convert was officially ordained after getting the authorization. He needed to take the oath of loyalty to the head of the Sangha.
The oath was:
“Buddham sharanam gachhami”
(I take refuge in the Buddha)
“Dharamam sharanam gachhami”
(I take sanctuary in Dharma)
Sangham sharanam gachhami”
(I take haven in Sangha)
The convert was admitted to lower ordination or “Pravrajya” and then he had to practice stern morality, strenuous austerity for 10 years, then he was confessed to greater ordination or “Upasampada”. After the disciplinary duration was over he ended up being a full-Hedged member of the church and his life was directed by the rules of the Patimokkha.